The History of the World
To understand the history of the world we will use the things we learned from the post The Intelligent Behavior of Evolution and also Creation Mythology. According to the theory of neurological intelligence the creation of intelligences can be devided into seven sections of equal length and distinct purpose. In this history of the world I will show how the life on the earth was formed through the process of evolution. Each period of the world's history is 1.2 billion years long, for this reason I will refer to the periods as Eons.
9.0 - 7.8 Billion Years Ago: Reactants (1)
Around 10 to 11 billion years ago our galaxy the milky way merged with another galaxy about one tenth its size. The merger of the two galaxies created lots of stars. These stars started to explode at the start of this phase of creation. The type of explosion is called a type IIA supernova, and it turns the hydrogen and other light elements into iron and other heavier elements. These elements filled the galaxy in the form of a hot gas. They fulfill the first need of chemical reactions, which is to have reactants.
7.8 - 6.6 Billion Years Ago: Pressure and Concentration (2)
As the stars exploded it heated up the interstellar gas in the galaxy. The heat from the gas allowed it to expand and counteract the force of gravity. Without gas falling into the galaxy there was no fuel to form new stars, and star formation in the galaxy stopped. During this eon no new stars formed, but the old stars continued to explode. This increased the concentration and density of the heavier elements in the galaxy, which allows chemical reactions to have their second need met, having a consistent concentration and pressure.
6.6 - 5.4 Billion Years Ago: Temperature (3)
By the start of this period of creation most of the stars that were going to explode had done so already. For the next 1.2 billion years the galaxy was able to cool down, which gives chemical reactions their final need, which is to have a temperature low enough to be stable.
5.4 - 4.2 Billion Years Ago: Solar System (4)
After the interstellar gas had cooled it began falling back into the centre of the galaxy again, and it started fueling the formation of stars. These stars are different from the ones we learned about at the start because these ones have lots more heavy elements in them. The heavier elements allow them to live longer before exploding. At the halfway point of this eon, 4.8 billion years ago, our galaxy collided with the Sagittarius galaxy. This increased star formation, and we will now focus exclusively on one of the stars formed after the collision, our sun.
The sun, and the planets in the solar system formed at the same time. At the start the planets were rings of dust, and the sun was just a very large planet made mostly of hydrogen. The rings of dust then collected together into planets, and a fusion reaction ignited in the sun's core. The sun's ignition blasted away all of the light elements from nearby, which is why the the closest planets to the sun are rocky, and the furthest ones are gaseous.
The ring of dust which made the earth actually formed two planets originally. Then the smaller one drifted into the earth. After the collision it began orbiting the earth, and it is now our moon.
The earth was then bombarded by giant meteorites for 100 million years. These meteors brought with them chemicals that are nessisary for life to form, such as all the water in the oceans.
The formation of the solar system fulfills the first level of evolution, which is to have complex chemical reactions.
4.2 - 3.0 Billion Years Ago: Life (5)
As soon as the giant meteors stopped vaporizing the planet's surface life began to form. Life started out as large organic molecules called RNA. They were formed through dehydration synthesis in large puddles that evaporated regularly. By chance one of these molecules formed that was able to replicate itself. Sometimes when it replicated itself it would make a copy that was slightly different, called a mutated clone. If the mutated clone was better at surviving, or better at replicating, it would reproduce and become the dominant life form. This is called natural selection, and it forms the second stage of evolution.
By halfway through this period of creation life had mutated enough to form cells which surround and encase their genetic material. Life eventually split into three main groups, archaea and bacteria, which contain a more stable molecule called DNA, and viruses, some of which use RNA, and some of which use DNA as their genetic material.
3.0 - 1.8 Billion Years Ago: Recombination (6)
At around 3 billion years ago archaea and bacterial cells had evolved the ability to swap genetic information with other cells of the same species. When cells swap genetic information it is called recombination, and it allows different traits to be combined in an organism. If cells do this when reproducing, it is called sexual reproduction, and if they do this without reproducing it is called cellular conjugation. Recombination forms the third level of evolution.
Around 2.4 billion years ago a species of archaea started developing a structure which would house its genetic information called the cell nucleus. Some biologists believe that it made this structure at the same time as giant viruses started forming viral factories. The viral factory is an organelle which a giant virus sets up in its host cell to create new viruses; they are very similar to cell nucleii. Due to this similarity it is believed that the giant viruses and the archaea pressured each other to create these structures through an adversarial relationship.
Once the cell nucleus had evolved it became possible for this species of archaea, now called a eucariote, to organize the inside of its cell into organelles. It also became possible to merge with other organisms that it had a symbiotic relationship with. This merger happened twice to form two very important kinds of cell. The first merger was between a eucariote and an aerobic bacteria. Aerobic bacteria are able to breathe oxygen, whereas early eucariotes could not. When they merged the new euchariote species started using the aerobic bacteria as a new oxygen breathing organelle, the mitochondria. This euchariote is the animal cell. Next an animal cell merged with a cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are able to create their own food through photosynthesis. The resulting euchariote is a plant cell, and the cyanobacteria became the chloroplast. Plant cells and animal cells are the two special intelligences which form during the sixth stage of the creation of an intelligence.
1.8 - 0.6 Billion Years Ago: Multicellular Organisms (7)
Both plants and animals evolved to have multicellular species. In fact euchariotes attempted to become multicellular many times, but they were only successful 6 times. Those groups became red algae, brown algae, green algae, plants, animals, and fungi.
The multicellular organisms during this time were simple, there was little to no specialization of cells. Multicellularity is the fourth level of evolution.
0.6 Billion Years Ago - Present: Complex Life
Starting in the Ediacran period complex organisms started evolving. These organisms have specialized cells organized into different tissues and organs.
Complex multicellular organisms have dominated the world ever since, and they evolved into the plants, animals and people that are around today.